Formula of Population

Natural Increase: Birth rate – Death rate

Dependency ratio: children (0-14) + elderly ( 65 and over) / working age X 100

Net migration= Immigration – Emigration

Population Density : Total Population / Total Area in sq km = per


Urban & Rural Settlement Geography

Settlement is a  place where people live and interact through activities such as agriculture, trading and entertainment

Settlement in geography help us to understand man’s relationship with his environment.

A rural settlement is a community involved predominantly primary activities such as farming, lumbering and mining.

A urban settlement engages in predominantly in secondary and tertiary activities such as food processing and banking.

There is often correlation between functions , population sizes and population density.

A rural settlement tends to have small population and low population density.

Urban settlement often has a large population size and high population density.

Site Factors for Settlement

Physical environment determine the site of a settlement depend on

1.Water supply – water is essential for human survival and agricultural activities.
2.Relief – the availability of broad flat land such as floodplains promote agricultural activities.
3.Soils- fertility of soils also another considerations for agricultural activities
4.Shelter-which are sheltered from natural elements. Windswept highland with harsh cold climate are conducive for settlement.
5.Defence– Threat from enemies and predatory animals drove people to live together for protection.



The town and cities grow in size and number as the urban population expands. The rapid rate of Urbanisation in developed and developing countries brings a host of urban problems due to a large increase in the number of urban dwellers.

The problems are

1.Housing- lack of house and cant afford of proper housing. Development of squatter settlement.
2.Water supply- shortage of water supply due to the demand of water supply and poor piping system.
3.Transport- too many cars in major cities. Poor public transport system
4.Pollution- domestic and industrial waste contribute to land pollution in urban areas.


Solutions to the Urban Problems

    1.Housing – provide high rise flat since the land is scarce like in Singapore and Hong Kong. Most of the middle class residential live at HDB ( Housing Development Board) Flats in Singapore.
hdb flat
Provide low cost housing to relocate slum dwellers and squatter.
Improve the living condition of slum and squatter settlements instead of removing them by providing piped water and sanitation.
Control to reduce the rural urban migration by this it can reduce the overcrowding in the city.

    2. Water supply- to increase water supply is build more reservoirs.

To improve the quality of water, more treatment plants should be built and old rusty pipes must be replaced.
educate the public in the virtues of water conservation.
     3. Transport- to ease congestion in the developed countries road and railways network have to extended.

– Build extensive expressways and wider roads to ensure smooth flow of traffic.

Encourage to use public transport to reduce traffic congestion such as MRT.
4. Pollution- several ways to curb pollution

-impose fine to protect the environment such as littering and emission of excessive exhaust fumes.

Land pollution to collect the waste three times a day
Water pollution- increase the number of sewerage pipes in the city.
Noise pollution- piling work should be done in daylight at certain hours and growing tree as a noise buffer in the expressway.
Increase awareness of health, hygiene and ills of pollutions.

Urban Theory

circular model

Burgess based his model on the city of Chicago

At its core is the CBD, or Central Business District. This is the area with the highest land price, which could only be afforded by businesses.

Around this is the zone of transition, which is where industry located. In many cities in the UK, such as Birmingham, this zone can be quite easily identified. However in most cases the industry has moved out, leaving the zone empty and in need of renewal.

Beyond the zone of transition are the rings of residential housing. As people became more wealthy they could afford to live further out of town, in bigger houses, with larger gardens.

The houses closest to the centre originally would have housed the workers for the inner city industries. Many British cities still have many of these terraced houses remaining.

As people moved away from the CBD, the houses closest to the centre would be taken by newly arrived immigrants to the city, either from elsewhere in the country or abroad.

sector model

The sector model has a similar idea of a CBD to Burgess. This is still the area with the highest land price.

Hoyt then used transport routes to determine where his other sectors would be located. He still had a zone of transition around the CBD, but he also had industry fanning out from the centre along major transport routes. He assumed that “Like would attract like”, which is why he decided that land-uses would concentrate to form sectors, rather being in rings, like Burgess thought.

The lowest class housing would be closest to the industry, and probably be located where the prevailing winds would blow the pollution towards them (and away from the higher class housing).

The high class housing also is in a sector of its own, running all the way from the CBD, where many of the residents would work, to the outer suburbs.

nuclei model

This model was aimed at being more specific than the other two, however it also has become more complicated.

Harris and Ullman still have a central CBD, but they also have other smaller centres performing specific functions that Hoyt and Burgess decided would have been found in and around the CBD. Thus Harris & Ullman also havea business centre, and industrial parks.

Large cities do display some of these characteristics. London has different areas of its centre that have different functions: the City, Westminster, Oxford Street and the West End all have differing specific functions.

London has also grown to engulf other towns and villages, which have become smaller CBD’s within the whole of Greater London. These CBD’s act as growth poles, meaning that the city does not just grow from one central point, but from many spread around its area.



features of  the urban landform

By drawing a transect of a city, you can quite easily identify the different zones, in much the same way as Burgess and the other theorists did. Transects help you to identify and classify zones, enabling you to compare the characteristics of each area. You can identify the CBD, the older terraced housing, and as you move further from the city centre the newer housing of the suburbs. The main zones to concentrate on are:

The CBD: The focal point of the city, with the highest land prices. The CBD is where shops will locate as they know it is the most accessible point for the people of the city. The high land prices mean that buildings tend to grow upwards, and this is why CBD’s often have tall skyscrapers, particularly in American cities. The main functions of the CBD will include retail, entertainment, financial services and other professional services.

The Inner City:This is Burgess’s zone of transition. The inner city in the 19th Century would have been the centre of industry for most cities. Low paid workers would have lived in the many rows of terraced houses that were built beside the factories. Nowadays, although the factories have gone, many of the terraced houses remain.The Inner city of many urban areas has undergone great changes. These are covered in detail in a later section. However once the industry moved out,the inner cities became areas in need of redevelopment. The first plan was to build tall blocks of flats to replace the terraces. This occurred in the 1960’s and 1970’s. During the 1990’s Inner City redevelopment has taken the form of gentrification schemes aimed at rejuvenating the area, producing more of a community spirit, whilst trying to keep some of the old architecture.

The Suburbs: Many suburban houses were built in the period between the two World Wars, during the first half of the 20th century. Estates full of detached and semi-detached houses grew rapidly as public and private transport improvements allowed people to live further away from their place of work. During the 1960’s and 1970’s these areas also continued to grow.

The Rural-Urban Fringe: The rural-urban fringe is where most of the post war housing has been built. Usually in estates of mainly detached and semi-detached houses, the emphasis has often been on making the houses as spacious as possible. Again these housing developments were only possible thanks to the fact that most families now own at least one car.



Slum and Squatter settlement is an area in a less developed city where people reside on land they do not own, they don’t pay rent or propety taxes.  Usually they settle down at the outskirt of the city.


The Living Conditions and the features of Squatter settlements.

Shacks made out of cardboard, boxes, sack-clothed, and crushed beverage cans

– No proper toilet or sewage system

– Lack of schools, paved roads, telephones and proper piped system.

– They don’t have their own source of electricity.


The reasons why existence of Squatter settlement are:


~High population in the urban/cities  -similar to urbanization.

~Less housing

~Migration in search of work- People travel in search of work since the cost of living in a city is increasing.

~Constant threat of Eviction- Slums can be anywhere, such as next to railways or even 5 star hotels, though they live in constant fear.


Examples of Slum and Squatter settlements

The largest settlement in Asia is in Orangi Township in Karachi, Pakistan





All industries can be thought of as a system of inputs, processes, outputs and feedback.


Inputs are the things that go into the system. The main three inputs are:

1. Physical inputs -These include sun, soil and water in primary industries and raw materials such as cotton, metal or oil in secondary industries.
2. Labour – either skilled or unskilled.
3. Capital -This is the money invested in the business to pay for raw materials, staff, machinery and the buildings used for production and storage.

Processes are all the things that happen to those inputs to help turn them into outputs. These include:

a)  Production – for example the manufacturing of cars, or the sewing of textiles.
b) Factory maintenance, which is necessary to keep machines in working order.
c) Packaging which protects products during transit and presents them in a way that makes customers want to buy them.
d) Transport, which is needed to move products from the factory to the warehouse and then on to the shops.
Outputs are the finished products, together with profits and wages.

Feedback includes anything that refines or improves the system, such as:

a) Customer feedback. Companies find out what consumers think of their products through market research. They may alter or adapt their range according to feedback to sell more products and maximise profits.
b) A profit is the money left over after inputs (staff wages, raw materials, machinery and buildings) have been paid for. Profits need to be high enough to make it worthwhile for the company to continue investing in making the product. If profits fall too low, the company will need to change the inputs, process or outputs to improve profit or diversify into other products. If they do not they will go bust.
Primary industries involves collecting raw  materials, e.g farming, fishing, mining and forestry.
Secondary industries are those which take the raw materials produced by the primary sector and process them into manufactured goods and products.
Examples of secondary industries include heavy manufacturing, light manufacturing,  food processing, oil refining and energy production.
The tertiary sector is also called the service sector and involves the selling of services and skills. They can also involve selling goods and products from primary and secondary industries.
Examples of tertiary employment include the health service, transportation, education, entertainment, tourism, finance, sales and retail.
The quaternary sector consists of those industries providing information services, such as computing, ICT (information and communication technologies), consultancy (offering advice to businesses) and R&D (research, particularly in scientific fields).
The quaternary sector is sometimes included with the tertiary sector, as they are both service sectors. The tertiary and quaternary sectors make up the largest part of the UK economy, employing 76% of the workforce.


The employment structure of a country shows how the labour force is divided between the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors. Different countries have different employment structures. The employment structure of a given country can tell you quite a lot about that country’s economy.
In the richest countries, for example, there will usually be more people working in the tertiary/quaternary sector than in the primary and secondary sectors. In the poorest countries, there tend to be more people working in the primary sector than in either the secondary or tertiary sectors.
Diagram 1
Refer to the above diagram 1 of Pie chart of Industry structures. What you can tell about the industry structures according to the development of the countries.


Different industries require different inputs. Industries are more likely to locate where these inputs are readily and cheaply available. Factors that influence where an industry locates include:

1.  Power supply
2. Communications – including transport, telecommunications.
3. Labour supply – including workers with the right skills.
4. Access to market – where the goods are sold.
5. Grants and financial incentives – usually from governments.
6. Raw materials
7. Market
8. Climate
9. Availability of land
10. Technology and Research


Newly industrialized countries are members of a socioeconomic classification given to locations that have recently experienced an economic shift towards stability and industry.
The term newly industrialized countries originally applied to four emerging Asian countries: Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea and Singapore.
Diagram 2


1. Can you name other NICs countries in diagram 2?

2. In which region, most of NICs countries are located?


NICs usually share some other common features, including:

a)  Increased social freedoms and civil rights.
b) Strong political leaders.
c)  A switch from agricultural to industrial economies, especially in the manufacturing sector.
d)  An increasingly open-market economy, allowing free trade with other nations in the world.
e)  Large national corporations operating in several continents.
f)  Strong capital investment from foreign countries.
g) Political leadership in their area of influence.
h) Lowered poverty rates.
High tech is technology that is at the cutting edge: the most advanced technology currently available. It is often used in reference to micro-electronics, rather than other technologies.

The sector approach classifies industries according their technology intensity, product approach according to finished products.

a) Aerospace
b) Artificial Intelligence
c)  Biotechnology
d) Computer Software
e)  Electrical Engineering
f)  Photonics
g) Nanotechnology
h)   Nuclear Physics
i)  Robotics
j)  Telecommunication.
Transnational Companies (MNCs) are large business organizations that have set up offices, factories and branches in many countries.
Mazda, Microsoft, Mitsubishi and Motorola are all examples of MNCs.The Transnational Companies are able to locate their activities in other activities in other countries because they have the capital and the administrative ability to control their extensive businesses. Due to rising labour costs in their own countries, MNCs seeks locations that can supply them with abundant cheaper labour to maximise profits.


The growth of tourism has increased in the past few years due to;
  • People have more disposable income (spare cash) than they used to, so can afford to go on holidays.
  • Companies  gives more paid holidays than they used to
  • Travel has become cheaper (particular air travel) so more people can afford to go on holiday.
  • Holiday providers e.g. tour companies and hotels , now use the internet to sell their products to people directly which makes them cheaper.  This means more people can afford to go away.
  • Improvement in transport have made it quicker and easier to get to places.
  • Countries in more unusual tourist destination like Middle east and Africa have got better at marketing themselves as tourist attractions. This means people are more aware of them.
  • Many countries have invested in infrastructure for tourism (e.g. better hotels) to make them more attractive to visitors.
The important of Tourism to the economies of many countries are
i) Create jobs for local people which help the economy to grow.
ii) Bring money into the local economy
iii) Improvement in infrastructures such as improved roads, communications for tourist as well benefit to the local people.
Physical factors
Attractive natural scenery such as Green hills, beautiful valleys, white sandy beaches, undersea diving spot
Pleasant climate such as countries with cool temperate with their distinct four seasons. The warm tropical climate with its sunny weather appeals to tourist from the cooler temperate countries.
Cultural factors
Historical places of interests especially the history of the country like ancient ruins, monuments and archaeological site.
Religious building, place of worship such as churches, cathedrals, temples, shrines and mosques are often included in the visitor itinerary of most package tours to a country.
Cultural centres often have a glorious historical past and many people are fascinated by that, Beijing (chinese Dynasties, Cairo (the pyramid)
Entertainments certain cities are best known for their unique brand of entertainment that many tourists want to see e.g. Los Angeles, Paris
Economic factors
Infrastructure in term of place can only have tourist potentials if its accessible to the tourists. A good network of roads, railways and seaways are important to provide easy accessibility to visitors.
Accommodation facilities including hotels, lodging houses, budget inns, rest house and chalets provide a wide range of accommodation for tourist to choose.
Shopping facilities e.g. local shops that sell local products, souvenirs and handicrafts are most frequented by foreign tourists.  Shopping malls complete with multi-storey shops and supermarkets are patronised  by both local folk as well as tourist.
Eating places which provide with all meals daily like local delicacies such as tom yam in Thailand, satay in Malaysia, Nasi Katok in Brunei.
Other economic facilities which include services such as tour guiding,banking, postal services, good communication network ( internet, roaming services) local entertainment (cinema, operas, cultural dances , night clubs), swimming pools and sport facilities.
Tourism is a labour intensive industry providing employment for the people in so many sectors of the economy such as the following.
a)      Tourist agencies – tour operators , tour guides and the entire staff in the travel agencies from managers to ticketing officers and other administrative staff serve the needs of tourists.
b)      Transport workers- tourists arriving at the airport are taken care of by the airport staff, by coach drivers to see the place of interests.
a)      Hotel operators- services are rendered by people in the hotels such as receptionists, cashiers, porters, chamber maids , security, offices and many others who are involved in the maintenance of the hotel and is day to day administration.
b)      Food caterers- chefs and waitresses serve in the restaurants, coffee houses , bars , buffet parties and other food outlets where the tourist go such as hawker centres, cafes and bazaars.
c)       Trader- people who work in shops and souvenirs stalls patronized by the tourists in all tourist spot to cater the tourists’ shopping needs.
d)      Entertainers – dancers, musicians, cinema operators and instructors for local sports , games and performers in night clubs, stage shows and other entertaining activities make entertainment possible.
e)      Other related activities – construction of hotels, restaurants, shopping centres and other entertainment places. Airports have to do be extended and more roads built to cater to the ever increasing number of visitors. Their constructions provide employment for the construction workers, engineers and others.
  1. It provide source of foreign earnings for the country. Tourists bring into country large quantities of foreign exchange as they have to spend more money on airfares, hotels, restaurants, night clubs, entertainment, souvenirs and shopping.
  2. Tourism promotes cultural exchange among people of the world. It creates better understanding , foster goodwill and generates greater tolerance amongst people, Buildings and tourist attractions created by tourist boom also benefit the locals.
1. The tourist boom necessitates the construction of hotels, roads, shops and other tourist facilities. Valuable land for agricultural and industrial has to make way for their construction. The growth of tourism has threatened the tranquility of countryside and the once quiet beaches.
2. The influx of tourist to such a popular tourist spots such as wayside castles, uphill palace and traditional houses in the countryside have rapidly eroded the footpaths and lead to the silent deterioration of many of these preserved historical buildings. It is said that some parts of the stone pave way in the Forbidden City of Beijing have been so bad trampled by thousands of tourist every day in recent years that they have to be cordoned off for repair and some are even closed to visitors totally.
3. In many public parks, gardens and national forest reserves, the influx of tourists over the years has ruined many species of plants. Heavy penalties have to be imposed to deter vandalism and to prevent further deterioration of the natural habitat.
4. During the peak tourist seasons, many tourists frequented places are overcrowded with people. There are long queues for food, traffic jams on the roads and unruly crowds in shopping centres. Local folks who live in the neighbourhood suffer much from the noise pollution, vandalism, thefts and price inflation.
5. To cater to high demand by tourist for local crafts such as batiks, handicrafts, potteries, basketry and other traditional products, these items are now mass produced by machines instead of being hand made. It might ruin the reputation of the quality of local crafts and tarnish the name of the country. Tourist who these inferior quality products do not think much of the country.
6. Scantily dressed tourists on beaches and the streets are disliked by the local people.
7. Tourism is often a seasonal affair. It has its boom times and slump periods. During slumps, when there are few tourists, shop, close down, places are deserted and people lose their jobs and the economy suffers.
  1. Create new sector of employment in Tourism industries and reduce the problem of unemployment in Brunei Darussalam.
  2. Diversification of the economy as well as encouraging foreign investment and developing education and human resources. These measures are designed to prepare the nation for the challenges of the future when the oil and gas reserves will have been depleted and new sources of income will be needed to maintain the current high standards of living enjoyed by Bruneians.
  3. To promote Ecotourism Haven where the visitors can explore this untouched natural paradise in a walk in Temburong National Park which houses one of the world’s richest and most diverse ecosystems, a stroll along beautiful lakeside walkways of Tasek Merimbun in Tutong, a longboat ride down a winding jungle river surrounded by lush rainforests or relaxing on the lapping shores of Muara beach, basking in its tranquility.



Agriculture, or farming, is a primary industry. Farmers cultivate crops and rear animals to produce food and other products.

Agriculture is affected by many of the same factors and concerns  as other types of industry.

There are a range of agricultural operations from large commercial farms to small subsistence farms.

All of these farms work to supply the constant demand for agricultural produce.


Like any other industry, farming is a system of inputs, processes and outputs.

Inputs will be physical (land, sun, rain), human (labour) and capital (money for livestock and feed, seeds, equipment, wages).

Processes are the activities on the farm that turn inputs into outputs. For example, feeding and caring for the animals or planting and tending to the crops.

Outputs are products farmers sell at market or use to feed and clothe their families. Barley, hops, wheat, hay and straw are products from crops and meat, wool, leather and cheese are products from animals.

Farms can be categorised according to what is being grown or reared, the size of the operation and the agricultural techniques being used.

Farming can be:

•    sedentary or nomadic

•    subsistence or commercial

•    arable, pastoral or mixed

•    extensive or intensive

Factors that are affecting farming

a) Physical

Like other primary industries, farming is highly dependent on physical inputs such as:

•    Weather and climate

•    Slope or relief of the land

•    Soil fertility

•    Water and drainage

These inputs are naturally occurring, so farmers must work with the physical factors of their farm’s location.

They can intervene in these inputs – for example by growing crops in a polytunnel (plastic tunnel greenhouse) to protect them from frosts and improve plant growth.

However, such human interventions require extra inputs in the form of money or work.

b) Human

Like physical factors, these vary according to the type of farm and the country where the farm is located. Factors include:

•    Government policy – eg EU subsidies and loans and US tax reductions.

•    Labour – some farms require more labour than others, eg a market garden will employ more labourers than a hill sheep farm.

•    Finance – money is needed for wages, seed, buildings, animal feed, fertilizers, pesticides and machinery.


The Potential Development and investment of Agricultural activities in Brunei Darussalam are;

•LAND : The Government will assist bona fide investors to obtain suitable sites and lands for various agri-businesses.

•INFRASTRUCTURE : The Government will consider providing the basic infrastructure including roads, drainage, irrigation, water and electricity supply.

•ACCESSIBILITY: Brunei Darussalam is easily accessible by sea ports, airport and roads. Brunei Darussalam also has a best infrastructure for ICT.

•LABOUR AND HRO : The country has a large pool of educated workforce to support modern agribusiness development. In addition, the Government has a liberal policy for labours and permit large numbers of cheap migrant workers to support its economic development.

•STRONG ECONOMIC FUNDAMENTALS : Brunei Darussalam has huge trade surpluses to finance its development programmes without having to borrow. However, the Government is seriously pursuing economic development programmes to diversify its petroleum-based economy.

•FINANCIAL : The national currency is sound, backed by strong foreign reserves. Financial institutions are well regulated and have the capacity to support private sector development.

•TECHNOLOGY SUPPORT : The Government is supportive in agricultural R&D including post-harvest technology. The private sector has easy access to asset-based technology and enjoys a free flow of knowledge and information. Other supportive programmes include agromarketing, entrepreneur development and developing industrial standards.

•LEGAL PROTECTION : Brunei Darussalam has an established legal framework with the rule of laws to safeguard investments and intellectual properties.

•PUBLIC POLICIES : Public policies are investors friendly including generous tax incentives and pioneer status . Investors also enjoy a freehand on management.

•SOCIAL FACTOR : Brunei Darussalam enjoys time-proven political stability and social cohesiveness that favour foreign and domestic investments.

The sectors that have been developed are:

 The Horticulture

Primary Production


Vegetables (Fresh Hydroponics Products, Mushroom, etc)

Floriculture (Ornamentals & Cut Flowers, Orchids, Tissue Culture products, etc)

Field & Miscellaneous Crop (Corn, Nuts, Tuber, Ginger, Lemon Grass, Sugar Cane, etc)


Fruits and Vegetables (Juices, Cordial & Other Condiments, Canning, Sauce, Pickles, Dried, Snacks, etc)


Marketing (Packaging of Fresh Products, Product Distribution, Whole Sale Market, etc)

Production Input (Organic Fertilizer, Pesticide and Fungicide, Seeds Seedling, Equipments and Machine, etc)

The livestock

Primary Production

Ruminants (Buffalo, Goat, Dairy Cow, Deer)

Non-Ruminants (Free Range Chicken, Breeder, Duck, Quail, Rabbit)


Beef / Meat / Broiler (Frozen, Sausage, Nuggets, Mince, Corn Beef, Satay, Belutak, Lalap, Serunding, etc

Abbatoir (Chicken, Buffalo, etc)

Milk (Yoghurt, Pasteurized, Cheese, Butter, Cosmetics, Ice-cream, Chocolate

Egg (Salted Eggs, Egg Powder, Century Eggs)

Leather (Shoes, Hand-bags, Purse, Gloves)

Animal Feed (Poultry & Ruminant, etc)


Veterinary (Medicine, Vaccine)

Pet Shop

Food Consumption per capita in MDCs is much higher than it is in LDCs
About 20% of the world’s population consumes nearly 50% of the meat and fish in the world, whereas the poorest 20% consumes only about 5% of the meat and fish in the world.
There has been an increase in food consumption among the people in the world from 1960’s till today but the rate of increase varies among different region
What constitute a balanced diet?
1. carbohydrates; source of energy
2. Proteins; source of material for growth and repair
3. Fats; sources of energy and contain fat soluble vitamins
4. Vitamins require to keep healthy
5. Mineral salts; required for teeth, bones, muscles etc
6. Fibre; is required to help your intestines function correctly.
People have been consuming food with a higher proportion of fats over the last few decades. Due to that high consumption of fats (heart diseases & diabetes)
People start to take organic food as healthier choice of diet
People have a variety of food imported from all over the world. They are exposed to all kinds of foods today.
Th staple food in Asia is rice & hence there are longer proportion of carbohydrates in their food .There have been changes in consumption of such foods over the last two decades. examples like roots such as sweet potatoes & yam have become part of diet.
Vegetables (fruit and leaf) have also become popular in Asian diets
Meat and fish’s are increasingly consumed in Asia as well.
Factors for variations in global food production
a) Economic Power
People in the DCs have more purchasing power than people in the LDCs
People in wealthier countries can afford more food as well as more expensive types of meat , fruit and vegetables.
b) Food Security
Refers to adequate supply of food to a population regardless of other factors affecting its production and distribution. examples, the availability of food from other parts of the world, the mean of transport food where it is needed, together with the ability to pay for the food, give a country food security
Food security is affected by a range of factors both physical and human
i) Physical factor- severe weather disruption and diseases like drought.
ii) Human factor- occurrence of wars and lack of distribution networks.
c) Natural Events Drought and floods are two natural event that may affect both production and consumption in a region
d) Socio-Political factors Migration of rural urban can cause labour shortages and reduce productivity in the rural areas In the developed countries, rural depopulation has been linked to greater productivity due to more mechanised farm processes replacing manual labour and enabling faster completion of tasks to such as planting and harversting
Political factors can affect food stability positively and negatively
i) In economies where market conditions are stronger, example countries in EU (European Union) government influence food production by incentives such as tax holidays, subsidies and guaranteed prices for the production of certain food products.
ii) Free trade agreement can significantly increase the variety of food made available to the consumers. Australia consumers are now able to buy a range of fruit and vegetables from the United State of America despite the long distance and prices can be much lower than in other countries.
e) Technology Technological advances in farming methods can greatly increase food production. Over last 50 years , most farmers in Developed countries have mechanised their farming processes and applied advanced technology to their farming methods Applying such technology in farming regions has lead to an increase in the production of foodstuffs , as well as a more uniform quality of food.
f) Provision for future Needs The Developed countries are wealthy enough to purchase food from world markets several years in advance. When there are food shortage and prices rise, they are still able to provide food for their population. Countries in EU(European Union) and North America are also large scale food producers  are able to store large stockpiles of food in warehouse and silos.
i) Relief
Lowland areas as such floodplains of Bangladesh are some of the Earth’s most productive areas. For it to be highly productive, they must also receive the right amount of moisture for crops to grow successfully.
ii) Climate
Temperatures need to be warm enough for plants to grow and develop.
In Tropics, high temperatures are common but further away from the Equator and the tropics temperatures vary with seasons and this restricts the number of crops that can be grown in a year as well as the types of crops.
The type of soil in an area can greatly affect the intensity of food production.
Soil with many rocks and stones will be unsuitable for cultivation by machinery and is probably best left as grazing land for animals
Clayey soil due to their fine grain, refrain water. This makes it very suitable for growing wet rice.
i) Land tenure
Farmers who own land have greater incentives to make a profit and are more likely to invest in new equipment and techniques.
Farm land that is rented out to tenants may or may not be as successful as land owned by a farmer or farming family.
Often tenant farmer little incentives to improve the land they rent, and this in turn affects the productivity of the land.
ii) Land fragmentation
If land is equally sub- divided among the farmer’s heir, there can be a reduction in farm size and a fragmentation of holdings after several generations.
With small size of land, farmers cannot use high tech methods.
High tech methods of production require large tracks of land to reap economies of scale.
i) Land Availability
Competition for land to produce food crop is high. Often, industrial crops such as cotton and oil palm may prove more profitable than food crops. As a result, many land owner s prefer to grow industrial crops instead of food crops.
Farming land near cities may also be lost to other land uses such as industrial expansion and new residential development.
ii) Demand
A high demand for a certain crop encourages farmer to increase its output and productivity, so that they can sell more and earn more money.
Coffee production has expanded significantly in Brazil, India and other tropical countries when demand for coffee as a beverage has increased rapidly in the USA, Europe and other countries.
iii) Pricing of food products
It depends largely on the demand for these products from buyers.
If many farmers throughout the world produce sugar, there may be a surplus and the price will fall.
But if natural disasters such drought and floods occur, this can affect the supply of farm goods in the world market. When food becomes scarce, price will increase.
iv) Capital
Capital refers to money, machinery, equipment and buildings used by farmers to grow crops and raise animals.
In Developed countries, farmer can quite easily obtain loans from agricultural banks and organisations. This allow farmers to upgrade their farming methods and equipment and hence able to produce more.
In LDCs money for farm development may be less readily available to individual farmers. Borrowing from local money lenders can lead to greater debt as high interest rates are usually charged. Indebtedness reduces the likelihood of agricultural progress.
Government policies  and decisions affect farmers and the productivity of their holding in a number of ways. These include:
Financing and building infrastructure such as dam for irrigation.
Subsiding food production by paying farmers to produce a certain crop or by paying some of their costs, such as storage or marketing.
Controlling the trade in food items. The countries within European Union import food products from countries outside the Union only when that product is not available from its member countries.
Providing low cost loans, grants and or tax advantages help farmer to purchase machinery or repair eroded land.
Setting up agricultural training colleges for new farmers, forming advisory groups to deal with problems, such as soil erosion.
The technology has changes in the amount of food production in many parts of the earth.
Technological advances include a wide range of developments such as computerised sprinkler system and development of hybrid seeds through green revolution.
Green revolution has helped many farmers in LDCs of Asia increase the output of rice. The new technologies introduced high yielding varieties of rice (HYV) , chemical fertilisers, pesticides and modern irrigation state.
The impacts of differences in food supply are considerable . The Developed countries may have too much food, while on the other hand, 800 million people regularly go to bed hungry in the LDCs.
This is more common in MDCs than in LDCs
Obesity refers to excessive body fat in relation to body mass, increase the risk of health conditions, i.e. coronary heart disease, stroke and diabetes
The food consumed by the MDCs are often sugar based processed foods, containing too much protein and fats. As a result, many children and adults in the Developed countries grossly overweight or obese.
Economic Effects
The estimate range of annual expenditure on diet products will be increase from $40 billion to $100 billion in the US alone. The medical cost attributable to obesity will be increasing too.
Cost of treating: Obesity prevention programs have been found to reduce the cost of treating obesity related disease. The longer the people live, the more medical they incur and reducing obesity may improve public health and reduce overall health spending.
Lack of energy for working: Obesity can lead to disadvantages in employment. Obesity workers on average have higher rates of absenteeism from work and take more disability leave, thus increasing cost for employers and decreasing productivity.
In MDCs help for those affected by obesity has mainly come in the form of public education promoting a healthy lifestyle and weight loss companies such as weight watchers or the biggest loser television show.
Dieting and physical exercise are the mainstay of treatment for obesity.
Severe shortage of food intake leading to death. Hunger  brought on by the lack of food creates exhaustion and pain.
Overtime, this leads to malnutrition which can be life threatening.
The people in such countries have skeletal appearances and their health may become permanently damaged.
Condition whereby a lack of food or an imbalanced diet result in poor health.
Eating  disorder cause by malnutrition.
Why do many parts of Sub Saharan Africa suffer from Malnutrition?
The high birth rate and falling death rate means there are many people to be fed.
Few farmers have the money to buy high yielding seeds, fertiliser, pesticides or machinery or implement of irrigation schemes.
When food is scarce neither government nor people can afford to buy high priced surplus from overseas.
The soil is overused in the past and few nutrient remains. In places soil erosion has led to desertification.
Many areas, receive small and unreliable amounts of rainfall.
Pest and diseases destroy crops and stored grain.
Often there is not enough protein in the diet.
In many countries there is political instability.
Children under 5 years old are particularly susceptible to malnutrition. Children fall ill either because their diet contains too few proteins, which are particularly important during early stages of growth. The effect includes:
Kwashiorkor result from predominance of cereals (e.g. rice) and a deficiency of protein (e.g. milk, eggs and meat)
Marasmus is caused by a severe lack of food. It results in diarrhoea, wasting, and low immunity to other diseases. It is most common in children in their first year of life.
Two of several diseases resulting from a lack of vitamins are
Beri-beri due to lack of vitamin B, can lead to a wasting and paralysis of limbs.
Rickets caused by a deficiency in vitamin D , causes deformities in bones , legs and the spine.
Improved water supply , sanitation and hygiene
Health education for a healthy diet
Improved access by the poor , to adequate amount of healthy food.
Ensuring that industrial and agricultural development do not result in increased malnutrition.

Quality of Life


Quality of life is not the same as standard of living.

The differences between quality of life and standard of living are

Examples of Quality of life

The higher the standard of living the higher the quality of life but this don’t reflect they have a good quality of life. For example; a person have high earning and flashy cars but live somewhere where there’s a lot of crime and pollution.

Different parts of the world define different meaning or ideas of quality of life.

In UK, they might think being posh, having nice house, owning a  car and having access to leisure facilities

In Ethiopia, they might think it means having clean drinking water, plenty of food and somewhere to live and no threat of violence.


Map showing the MEDCs and LEDC

Factors that affect the development of the countries


i) Poor Climate

Countries with poor climates (really hot or cold) they wont be able to grow much so the amount of food produced is reduced.

Malnutrition rises as the main problem e.g. Chad and Ethiopia

Countries without expenses since they have fewer crops to sell and government will get less money from taxes .

ii) Poor farming land

If the land in a country is steep (mountainous areas) or has poor soil then they wont be able to produce a lot of food.

iii) Limited Water supply

Some countries don’t have a lot of water. Examples Egypt and Jordan. This makes it harder for them to produce a lot of food.

iv) Natural Hazards

Event like earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruption, tropical storm, droughts and flooding will affect the people’s live and property.

Bangladesh spend a lot of money to rebuild after the disaster. This reduce the quality of life where the government will reduce the amount of money spend on development projects.

v) Few raw materials

Countries without the raw materials like coals, oil or metal ores tend to make less money because they have got fewer products to sell.

Less money will spend on development.

Some countries do have a lot of raw materials but still aren’t very developed because they don’t have the money to develop the infrastructure to exploit them.


i) UNSTABLE GOVERNMENT- might not invest on healthcare, education and improving the economy.

ii) CORRUPTED GOVERNMENT- the richer gets more richer while poorer gets more poorer and have low quality of life.

iii) POLITICAL TURMOIL- wars in a country will loses the money that they could spend on development also reduce the country’s economy where people will not working, buildings are destroyed etc.


i) Poor Trade links

Trade among other countries in term of exchange of good and services.

World Trade Pattern  will influence the country’s economy and so affect their level of development.

If  a country has poor trade links , it wont make a lot of money .

ii) Debts $$

Very poor countries borrow money from other countries and international organization to help with the aftermath of a natural disaster

Money has to pay with some interest

No money to use for economic development.

iii) An economy based on primary product

Countries that are mostly export primary products (raw materials like wood , metal and stone) tend to be less developed.
Primary products tend to be not much profitable and sometimes the price falls below the cost of production.
Countries that are producing manufacture goods tend to be more developed.
With manufacture goods usually can make a decent profit by selling manufactured goods.
Wealthy countries can also force down the price of raw materials that they buy from poorer countries.

i) Drinking water

More developed countries will have clean drinking water available.

If the water is dirty, they will get ill and waterbourne disease include typhoid and cholera.

Being ill will reduce a person’s quality of life.

People cant work and will reduce the economy and cost money to treat.

ii) The place of women in society

A country will be more developed if women have an equal place with men in society.

Women who have an equal place in society are more likely to be educated and to work.

Women who are educated and work have a better quality of life and the country has more money to spend on development because there are more people contributing to the economy.

iii) Child Education

The more children that go to school (rather than work) the more developed a country will be.

Better education will get better jobs.

Being educated and have a good job improves the person’s quality of life and increase the money country country  has to spend on development.

Reducing Global Inequality

Fair Trade

Fair trade means that the producer receives a guaranteed and fair price for their product regardless of the price on the world market. This means their quality of life should improve, as well as the long-term prospects for their children.

Fair trade products sometimes cost more in supermarkets in MEDCs, but many consumers consider this a small price to pay for the benefits they bring.

Fair trade sets minimum standards for the pay and conditions of workers. The Fair Trade Organisation promotes Global Citizenship by guaranteeing a fair, minimum price for products. In this way, they support producers in improving their living conditions. About 5 million people benefit from Fair Trade in 58 countries.

Fair trade products are becoming more widespread and include tea, coffee, sugar, chocolate and cotton.


More Economically Developed Countries (MEDCs) have high levels of economic development compared with Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDCs).

Many MEDCs make allowance in their domestic budgets to provide aid to LEDCs. This aid may be given as part of a planned process or as a response to an emergency.

Many charities also exist to provide aid to LEDCs.


1.Emergency or short-term aid – needed after sudden disasters such as the 2000 Mozambique floods or the 2004 Asian tsunami.
2.Conditional or tied aid – when one country donates money or resources to another (bilateral aid) but with conditions attached. These conditions will often be in the MEDC’s favour, eg the controversial Pergau Dam project in Malaysia, where Britain used aid to secure trade deals with Malaysia.

3.    Charitable aid – funded by donations from the public through organisations such as OXFAM.

4.    Long term or development aid – involves providing local communities with education and skills for sustainable development, usually through organisations such as Practical Action.

5.   Multilateral aid – given through international organisations such as the World Bank rather than by one specific country.







Population Growth
Population growth is the growing of population in a country
Population growth is refer in the terms of increasing (+) and decreasing (-) of population.
Natural Increase
Natural Increase refers to the differences number of the Birth Rates and Death Rates is either (+) or  (-) and if the Birth Rates exceeds the number of deaths.
Natural Increase = Birth rate – Death rate
Birth rates is the number of babies born per thousand in a year
Death rates is the number of people who died per thousand in a year.


Birth Rates factors


Death rate factors

Net migration refers to the difference between immigration , which is the number of people , coming into a country , and emigration which is the number of people leaving the country.

Natural increase is influenced by the
1.Standard of living
2.Cultural factors
3.Government policy
MIGRATION is movement of people within an area.
There are two main types of migration
i) Internal
ii) International


China’s one child policy was established by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping in 1979 to limit communist China’s population growth. Although designated a “temporary measure,” it continues a quarter-century after its establishment. The policy limits couples to one child.

However, the rule has been estimated to have reduced population growth in the country of 1.3 billion by as much as 300 million people over its first twenty years.

Now that millions of sibling-less people in China are now young adults in or nearing their child-bearing years, a special provision allows millions of couples to have two children legally. If a couple is composed of two people without siblings, then they may have two children of their own, thus preventing too dramatic of a population decrease.

The Policies introduced are


Heavily on the fines imposed for those who disobeyed the policy. The one-child program theoretically is voluntary, but the government imposes punishments and heavy fines on people who don’t follow the rules.

Parents with extra children can be fined, depending on the region, from $370 to $12,800 (many times the average annual income for many ordinary Chinese). If the fine is not paid sometimes the couples land is taken away, their house is destroyed, they lose their jobs or the child is not allowed to attend school.


Birth control education is  highly emphasized to control the birth rate in China in term of public awareness and campaign.

Although IUDs, sterilization, and abortion (legal in China) are China’s most popular forms of birth control, over the past few years, China has provided more education and support for alternative birth control methods.

In 2007, there were  reports that in the southwestern Guangxi Autonomous Region of China, officials were forcing pregnant women without permission to give birth to have abortions and levying steep fines on families violating the law.


Parents who have only one child get a “one-child glory certificate,” which entitles them to economic benefits such as an extra month’s salary every year until the child is 14. Among the other benefits for one child families are higher wages, interest-free loans, retirement funds, cheap fertilizer, better housing, better health care, and priority in school enrollment.

Women who delay marriage until after they are 25 receive benefits such as an extended maternity leave when they finally get pregnant. These privileges are taken away if the couple decides to have an extra child. Promises for new housing often are not kept because of housing shortages.


More than eight years have passed since Mr. Goh Chok Tong, then First Deputy Prime Minister, announced in March 1987 the slogan “have three, or more (children) if you can afford it” as Singapore’s new population policy.
The policy, which may be described as “selectively pro-natalist”, represented a fundamental change in direction from the blanket “stop at two” policy which had been in effect for about two decades until the mid-1980s.
The overall goal of the new population policy may be characterized as “population rejuvenation” in the broadest sense of the term. The policy is intended to address three anticipated trends concerning the future quantity and quality of the population arising from current marriage and reproductive patterns, namely:
1. Diminution of the population owing to the failure of parental generations to adequately replace themselves with equally large numbers of children (“below-replacement” fertility);
2.Rapid increase in the proportion of the elderly, and decline in the proportions of the young and the working-age adults, as fewer children are born to replace the parental generation (the ageing of the population); and

3. Decline in the proportion of talented persons as the less educated marry and reproduce themselves at higher rates of fertility than the better educated (the “lopsided” pattern of procreation).



Employers attitudes to working mothers

Employers to be asked to be more understanding and flexible towards working mothers with young children. They should offer part-time and flexi-time work, extended no-pay maternity leave, and retrain women who rejoin the workforce. The civil service will lead the way.

Getting singles to mingle

The infrastructure of the Social Development Unit and the Social Development Section4 will be strengthened, and their activities and program me widened.

Child-care centres

The Government will pay a S$100 subsidy on all children, regardless of parents income, in government-run or government-approved centres, including those privately operated.



To promote the three or more policy well effective and must be practised to all Singapore. This is through campaign and adverstisement either poster, multimedia television and radio.

The new population policy attempts to redress these potentially disruptive trends by encouraging single persons to get married and by promoting a larger family size of three or more children among the married couples who can afford them. The latter effort is to compensate for those who do not marry and those who do not have any children, in order to attain the two-child average necessary for generational replacement.

It is expected that, by raising fertility to the replacement level, i.e. about 2.1 children per woman, and then maintaining this level of fertility indefinitely, the population will be maintained at a constant size with a balanced age structure, i.e. with neither too many of the elderly nor too many very young to be supported. This is through public education through bigger campaign and slogan for three or more policy

Abortion and sterilization counseling

There will be compulsory counseling before and after abortions to discourage abortions of convenience, and women with fewer than three children will be counselled before sterilization.


School registration

All disincentives against the third child will be removed. Children from three-child families will have the same priority as those from one and two-child families. Where there is competition for admission, priority will be given to children from three-child families.


Medisave can be used, with immediate effect, for the hospital costs of a third child, whether delivered in a government or private hospital. But no overdraft of Medisave account is allowed.

Housing allocation

Families in three-room or larger (public) flats who want to upgrade their flats on the birth of their third child will get priority allocation.

Accouchement fees

No change in the fee for the first, second and third child. Fee for fourth child raised, from 1 January 1988, to S$1,000 for all ward classes, and to S$1,300 for fifth and other children. But delivery and hospital costs for fourth child, with a S$3,000 maximum, can be offset against parents earned income.

Tax incentives

No increase in child relief for first and second child but third child relief raised to S$750 effective Fiscal Year 1988. Mother needs only three General Certificate of Education “O” level passes taken in one sitting, instead of five, to qualify for enhanced child relief. Fourth child also qualifies for enhanced child relief, which is S$750 plus 15 per cent of mothers earned income up to a maximum of S$10,000.
Special tax rebate of S$20,000 to be offset against either or both the husbands and wifes income tax liabilities for newborn third child. Another rebate — only for the working wife — equal to 15 per cent of her earned income. Any excess of both rebates can be carried forward for up to four years.


Demographic Transition Model is a graph showing the trend of changes in the natural increase of the population as a country develops. There are four or five stages which every countries have pass through. The graph below shows the transition or the change of Birth rate and death rates.


Refer to the above diagram

How the population changes?

In Rapid growth -Kenya

The population pyramid shows high birth rate indicates the wider base/bottom of population pyramid. The top of the population pyramid show there is a higher death rate because it is narrow. More people are dying. The reason for this , high birth rate and death rate is referred to lack of birth control and early marriage and death rate, poor medical facilities and Poor sanitation. In Demographic Transition Model this is the STAGE 1.

Slow Growth in USA

The population pyramid shows low birth rate at the base which is narrowed. This shows lower birth rates in USA. While the working population is much greater than the young age population. There is more working people here and this show that there is a need of creating new jobs and more industries to be opened to cater the population needs and to avoid high rate of unemployment. The top of the population pyramid is wider showing that the death rates are lower meaning there is more ageing population. The reasons for this are better medical facilities and better nutrition which makes the people to live longer and more healthy.

Negative Growth in Germany

This show the population pyramid base is narrowed showing there is less birth rate recorded. People tend to have less children due to the effective family planning. This is a worrying stage. As this continues, in few year they will suffer from highly ageing population where there will be more older people in the population compare to young people. The economic of the countries will be down as well as securities and investment.The top of the pyramid is more wider showing more elderly people. This is because of the better health care and nutrition intake.


Human development is about much more than the rise or fall of national incomes.
It is about creating an environment in which people can develop their full potential and lead productive, creative lives in accord with their needs and interests.
People are the real wealth of nations. Development is thus about expanding the choices people have to lead lives that they value. And it is thus about much more than economic growth, which is only a means — if a very important one — of enlarging people’s choices. The Human Development Index is a rough measurement on the livelihood status, encompassing health, economy and education.
One of the most common measures of a country’s progress, making it an often-used indicator of poverty.


LEDCs are non-industrial nations. They tend not to have a base of manufacturing industries and residents are less economically advantaged (i.e. poor). Another term for LEDCs is Third World nations. The majority of the world outside of Europe, the United States, Canada, South Africa, Israel, Japan and the former Soviet Block nations fall under this designation.

LEDCS: Bangladesh, Mali, Sudan, Peru, Fiji, Cambodia, Nigeria, Egypt, Zimbabwe
MEDCs are industrialised nations with large scale industry and a high gross-domestic-product rating. Citizens of these countries are usually economically well off with a small chance of starvation. They are also referred to as First World nations. They include all of the nations listed above with the exception of the Soviet Block nations which are known as Second World nations.

MEDCS: Australia, the UK, the USA, Switzerland, Canada, France, New Zealand, Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Japan , Republic of Korea