TOURISM

TOURISM
The growth of tourism has increased in the past few years due to;
  • People have more disposable income (spare cash) than they used to, so can afford to go on holidays.
  • Companies  gives more paid holidays than they used to
  • Travel has become cheaper (particular air travel) so more people can afford to go on holiday.
  • Holiday providers e.g. tour companies and hotels , now use the internet to sell their products to people directly which makes them cheaper.  This means more people can afford to go away.
  • Improvement in transport have made it quicker and easier to get to places.
  • Countries in more unusual tourist destination like Middle east and Africa have got better at marketing themselves as tourist attractions. This means people are more aware of them.
  • Many countries have invested in infrastructure for tourism (e.g. better hotels) to make them more attractive to visitors.
The important of Tourism to the economies of many countries are
i) Create jobs for local people which help the economy to grow.
ii) Bring money into the local economy
iii) Improvement in infrastructures such as improved roads, communications for tourist as well benefit to the local people.
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURIST INDUSTRY IN A COUNTRY
Physical factors
Attractive natural scenery such as Green hills, beautiful valleys, white sandy beaches, undersea diving spot
Pleasant climate such as countries with cool temperate with their distinct four seasons. The warm tropical climate with its sunny weather appeals to tourist from the cooler temperate countries.
Cultural factors
Historical places of interests especially the history of the country like ancient ruins, monuments and archaeological site.
Religious building, place of worship such as churches, cathedrals, temples, shrines and mosques are often included in the visitor itinerary of most package tours to a country.
Cultural centres often have a glorious historical past and many people are fascinated by that, Beijing (chinese Dynasties, Cairo (the pyramid)
Entertainments certain cities are best known for their unique brand of entertainment that many tourists want to see e.g. Los Angeles, Paris
Economic factors
Infrastructure in term of place can only have tourist potentials if its accessible to the tourists. A good network of roads, railways and seaways are important to provide easy accessibility to visitors.
Accommodation facilities including hotels, lodging houses, budget inns, rest house and chalets provide a wide range of accommodation for tourist to choose.
Shopping facilities e.g. local shops that sell local products, souvenirs and handicrafts are most frequented by foreign tourists.  Shopping malls complete with multi-storey shops and supermarkets are patronised  by both local folk as well as tourist.
Eating places which provide with all meals daily like local delicacies such as tom yam in Thailand, satay in Malaysia, Nasi Katok in Brunei.
Other economic facilities which include services such as tour guiding,banking, postal services, good communication network ( internet, roaming services) local entertainment (cinema, operas, cultural dances , night clubs), swimming pools and sport facilities.
THE BENEFITS OF TOURISM TO A COUNTRY
Tourism is a labour intensive industry providing employment for the people in so many sectors of the economy such as the following.
a)      Tourist agencies – tour operators , tour guides and the entire staff in the travel agencies from managers to ticketing officers and other administrative staff serve the needs of tourists.
b)      Transport workers- tourists arriving at the airport are taken care of by the airport staff, by coach drivers to see the place of interests.
a)      Hotel operators- services are rendered by people in the hotels such as receptionists, cashiers, porters, chamber maids , security, offices and many others who are involved in the maintenance of the hotel and is day to day administration.
b)      Food caterers- chefs and waitresses serve in the restaurants, coffee houses , bars , buffet parties and other food outlets where the tourist go such as hawker centres, cafes and bazaars.
c)       Trader- people who work in shops and souvenirs stalls patronized by the tourists in all tourist spot to cater the tourists’ shopping needs.
d)      Entertainers – dancers, musicians, cinema operators and instructors for local sports , games and performers in night clubs, stage shows and other entertaining activities make entertainment possible.
e)      Other related activities – construction of hotels, restaurants, shopping centres and other entertainment places. Airports have to do be extended and more roads built to cater to the ever increasing number of visitors. Their constructions provide employment for the construction workers, engineers and others.
  1. It provide source of foreign earnings for the country. Tourists bring into country large quantities of foreign exchange as they have to spend more money on airfares, hotels, restaurants, night clubs, entertainment, souvenirs and shopping.
  2. Tourism promotes cultural exchange among people of the world. It creates better understanding , foster goodwill and generates greater tolerance amongst people, Buildings and tourist attractions created by tourist boom also benefit the locals.
THE IMPACTS OF TOURISM ON A COUNTRY
1. The tourist boom necessitates the construction of hotels, roads, shops and other tourist facilities. Valuable land for agricultural and industrial has to make way for their construction. The growth of tourism has threatened the tranquility of countryside and the once quiet beaches.
2. The influx of tourist to such a popular tourist spots such as wayside castles, uphill palace and traditional houses in the countryside have rapidly eroded the footpaths and lead to the silent deterioration of many of these preserved historical buildings. It is said that some parts of the stone pave way in the Forbidden City of Beijing have been so bad trampled by thousands of tourist every day in recent years that they have to be cordoned off for repair and some are even closed to visitors totally.
3. In many public parks, gardens and national forest reserves, the influx of tourists over the years has ruined many species of plants. Heavy penalties have to be imposed to deter vandalism and to prevent further deterioration of the natural habitat.
4. During the peak tourist seasons, many tourists frequented places are overcrowded with people. There are long queues for food, traffic jams on the roads and unruly crowds in shopping centres. Local folks who live in the neighbourhood suffer much from the noise pollution, vandalism, thefts and price inflation.
5. To cater to high demand by tourist for local crafts such as batiks, handicrafts, potteries, basketry and other traditional products, these items are now mass produced by machines instead of being hand made. It might ruin the reputation of the quality of local crafts and tarnish the name of the country. Tourist who these inferior quality products do not think much of the country.
6. Scantily dressed tourists on beaches and the streets are disliked by the local people.
7. Tourism is often a seasonal affair. It has its boom times and slump periods. During slumps, when there are few tourists, shop, close down, places are deserted and people lose their jobs and the economy suffers.
THE REASONS FOR BRUNEI DARUSSALAM TOWARDS TOURISM INDUSTRY
  1. Create new sector of employment in Tourism industries and reduce the problem of unemployment in Brunei Darussalam.
  2. Diversification of the economy as well as encouraging foreign investment and developing education and human resources. These measures are designed to prepare the nation for the challenges of the future when the oil and gas reserves will have been depleted and new sources of income will be needed to maintain the current high standards of living enjoyed by Bruneians.
  3. To promote Ecotourism Haven where the visitors can explore this untouched natural paradise in a walk in Temburong National Park which houses one of the world’s richest and most diverse ecosystems, a stroll along beautiful lakeside walkways of Tasek Merimbun in Tutong, a longboat ride down a winding jungle river surrounded by lush rainforests or relaxing on the lapping shores of Muara beach, basking in its tranquility.