POPULATION

POPULATION
POPULATION TERMS
POPULATION- THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE LIVING IN A COUNTRY
POPULATION DISTRIBUTION IS THE DISTRIBUTION OF PEOPLE IN A COUNTRY EVENLY OR SPARSELY.
POPULATION DENSITY IS THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE IN A UNIT AREA OF LAND.

POPULATION DENSITY OF THE WORLD

POPULATION DISTRIBUTION
POPULATION DISTRIBUTION IS THE DISTRIBUTION/SPREADING OUT OF PEOPLE IN A COUNTRY EVENLY OR SPARSELY.
EXAMPLES COUNTRIES LIKE CHINA, INDIA, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, & INDONESIA POPULATION. HOW IS THE DISTRIBUTION?
OTHER PARTS OF THE WORLD LIKE ANTARCTIC AND ARCTIC POLAR CAPS AND PART OF AUSTRALIAN DESERT. HOW IS THE DISTRIBUTION?
POPULATION DENSITY
POPULATION DENSITY IS DEFINED AS THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE LIVING IN A UNIT OF LAND
THE FORMULA FOR POPULATION DENSITY IS
POP DENSITY= NUMBER OF PEOPLE /AREA = = PER KM²

FACTORS AFFECTING THE DISTRIBUTION AND DENSITY OF POPULATION

Population Growth
Population growth is the growing of population in a country
Population growth is refer in the terms of increasing (+) and decreasing (-) of population.
Natural Increase
Natural Increase refers to the differences number of the Birth Rates and Death Rates is either (+) or  (-) and if the Birth Rates exceeds the number of deaths.
Natural Increase = Birth rate – Death rate
Birth rates is the number of babies born per thousand in a year
Death rates is the number of people who died per thousand in a year.

FACTORS AFFECTING THE HIGH AND LOW BIRTH RATES

Birth Rates factors

FACTORS AFFECTING THE HIGH AND LOW DEATH RATES

Death rate factors

NET MIGRATION = IMMIGRATION – EMIGRATION
Net migration refers to the difference between immigration , which is the number of people , coming into a country , and emigration which is the number of people leaving the country.
POPULATION GROWTH = NATURAL INCREASE+ NET MIGRATION
DEPENDENCY RATIO = NUMBER OF DEPENDANTS
NUMBER OF WORKING POPULATION


Natural increase is influenced by the
1.Standard of living
2.Cultural factors
3.Government policy
MIGRATION
MIGRATION is movement of people within an area.
There are two main types of migration
i) Internal
ii) International
PUSH AND PULL FACTORS OF MIGRATION

POPULATION POLICY: CASE STUDY- ONE CHILD POLICY( CHINA)

China’s one child policy was established by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping in 1979 to limit communist China’s population growth. Although designated a “temporary measure,” it continues a quarter-century after its establishment. The policy limits couples to one child.

However, the rule has been estimated to have reduced population growth in the country of 1.3 billion by as much as 300 million people over its first twenty years.

Now that millions of sibling-less people in China are now young adults in or nearing their child-bearing years, a special provision allows millions of couples to have two children legally. If a couple is composed of two people without siblings, then they may have two children of their own, thus preventing too dramatic of a population decrease.

The Policies introduced are

FINANCIAL DISINCENTIVES

Heavily on the fines imposed for those who disobeyed the policy. The one-child program theoretically is voluntary, but the government imposes punishments and heavy fines on people who don’t follow the rules.

Parents with extra children can be fined, depending on the region, from $370 to $12,800 (many times the average annual income for many ordinary Chinese). If the fine is not paid sometimes the couples land is taken away, their house is destroyed, they lose their jobs or the child is not allowed to attend school.

EDUCATION

Birth control education is  highly emphasized to control the birth rate in China in term of public awareness and campaign.

Although IUDs, sterilization, and abortion (legal in China) are China’s most popular forms of birth control, over the past few years, China has provided more education and support for alternative birth control methods.

In 2007, there were  reports that in the southwestern Guangxi Autonomous Region of China, officials were forcing pregnant women without permission to give birth to have abortions and levying steep fines on families violating the law.

FACILITIES

Parents who have only one child get a “one-child glory certificate,” which entitles them to economic benefits such as an extra month’s salary every year until the child is 14. Among the other benefits for one child families are higher wages, interest-free loans, retirement funds, cheap fertilizer, better housing, better health care, and priority in school enrollment.

Women who delay marriage until after they are 25 receive benefits such as an extended maternity leave when they finally get pregnant. These privileges are taken away if the couple decides to have an extra child. Promises for new housing often are not kept because of housing shortages.

POPULATION POLICY: CASE STUDY THREE OR MORE (SINGAPORE)

BRIEF HISTORY
More than eight years have passed since Mr. Goh Chok Tong, then First Deputy Prime Minister, announced in March 1987 the slogan “have three, or more (children) if you can afford it” as Singapore’s new population policy.
The policy, which may be described as “selectively pro-natalist”, represented a fundamental change in direction from the blanket “stop at two” policy which had been in effect for about two decades until the mid-1980s.
The overall goal of the new population policy may be characterized as “population rejuvenation” in the broadest sense of the term. The policy is intended to address three anticipated trends concerning the future quantity and quality of the population arising from current marriage and reproductive patterns, namely:
1. Diminution of the population owing to the failure of parental generations to adequately replace themselves with equally large numbers of children (“below-replacement” fertility);
2.Rapid increase in the proportion of the elderly, and decline in the proportions of the young and the working-age adults, as fewer children are born to replace the parental generation (the ageing of the population); and

3. Decline in the proportion of talented persons as the less educated marry and reproduce themselves at higher rates of fertility than the better educated (the “lopsided” pattern of procreation).

THE POLICIES ARE:

FACILITIES

Employers attitudes to working mothers

Employers to be asked to be more understanding and flexible towards working mothers with young children. They should offer part-time and flexi-time work, extended no-pay maternity leave, and retrain women who rejoin the workforce. The civil service will lead the way.

Getting singles to mingle

The infrastructure of the Social Development Unit and the Social Development Section4 will be strengthened, and their activities and program me widened.

Child-care centres

The Government will pay a S$100 subsidy on all children, regardless of parents income, in government-run or government-approved centres, including those privately operated.

EDUCATION

CAMPAIGN AND ADVERTISEMENT

To promote the three or more policy well effective and must be practised to all Singapore. This is through campaign and adverstisement either poster, multimedia television and radio.

The new population policy attempts to redress these potentially disruptive trends by encouraging single persons to get married and by promoting a larger family size of three or more children among the married couples who can afford them. The latter effort is to compensate for those who do not marry and those who do not have any children, in order to attain the two-child average necessary for generational replacement.

It is expected that, by raising fertility to the replacement level, i.e. about 2.1 children per woman, and then maintaining this level of fertility indefinitely, the population will be maintained at a constant size with a balanced age structure, i.e. with neither too many of the elderly nor too many very young to be supported. This is through public education through bigger campaign and slogan for three or more policy

Abortion and sterilization counseling

There will be compulsory counseling before and after abortions to discourage abortions of convenience, and women with fewer than three children will be counselled before sterilization.

INCENTIVES

School registration

All disincentives against the third child will be removed. Children from three-child families will have the same priority as those from one and two-child families. Where there is competition for admission, priority will be given to children from three-child families.

Medisave

Medisave can be used, with immediate effect, for the hospital costs of a third child, whether delivered in a government or private hospital. But no overdraft of Medisave account is allowed.

Housing allocation

Families in three-room or larger (public) flats who want to upgrade their flats on the birth of their third child will get priority allocation.

Accouchement fees

No change in the fee for the first, second and third child. Fee for fourth child raised, from 1 January 1988, to S$1,000 for all ward classes, and to S$1,300 for fifth and other children. But delivery and hospital costs for fourth child, with a S$3,000 maximum, can be offset against parents earned income.

Tax incentives

No increase in child relief for first and second child but third child relief raised to S$750 effective Fiscal Year 1988. Mother needs only three General Certificate of Education “O” level passes taken in one sitting, instead of five, to qualify for enhanced child relief. Fourth child also qualifies for enhanced child relief, which is S$750 plus 15 per cent of mothers earned income up to a maximum of S$10,000.
Special tax rebate of S$20,000 to be offset against either or both the husbands and wifes income tax liabilities for newborn third child. Another rebate — only for the working wife — equal to 15 per cent of her earned income. Any excess of both rebates can be carried forward for up to four years.

DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION MODEL

Demographic Transition Model is a graph showing the trend of changes in the natural increase of the population as a country develops. There are four or five stages which every countries have pass through. The graph below shows the transition or the change of Birth rate and death rates.

POPULATION CHANGES

Refer to the above diagram

How the population changes?

In Rapid growth -Kenya

The population pyramid shows high birth rate indicates the wider base/bottom of population pyramid. The top of the population pyramid show there is a higher death rate because it is narrow. More people are dying. The reason for this , high birth rate and death rate is referred to lack of birth control and early marriage and death rate, poor medical facilities and Poor sanitation. In Demographic Transition Model this is the STAGE 1.

Slow Growth in USA

The population pyramid shows low birth rate at the base which is narrowed. This shows lower birth rates in USA. While the working population is much greater than the young age population. There is more working people here and this show that there is a need of creating new jobs and more industries to be opened to cater the population needs and to avoid high rate of unemployment. The top of the population pyramid is wider showing that the death rates are lower meaning there is more ageing population. The reasons for this are better medical facilities and better nutrition which makes the people to live longer and more healthy.

Negative Growth in Germany

This show the population pyramid base is narrowed showing there is less birth rate recorded. People tend to have less children due to the effective family planning. This is a worrying stage. As this continues, in few year they will suffer from highly ageing population where there will be more older people in the population compare to young people. The economic of the countries will be down as well as securities and investment.The top of the pyramid is more wider showing more elderly people. This is because of the better health care and nutrition intake.

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX

Human development is about much more than the rise or fall of national incomes.
It is about creating an environment in which people can develop their full potential and lead productive, creative lives in accord with their needs and interests.
People are the real wealth of nations. Development is thus about expanding the choices people have to lead lives that they value. And it is thus about much more than economic growth, which is only a means — if a very important one — of enlarging people’s choices. The Human Development Index is a rough measurement on the livelihood status, encompassing health, economy and education.
One of the most common measures of a country’s progress, making it an often-used indicator of poverty.

LEDCs and MEDCs

LEDCs are non-industrial nations. They tend not to have a base of manufacturing industries and residents are less economically advantaged (i.e. poor). Another term for LEDCs is Third World nations. The majority of the world outside of Europe, the United States, Canada, South Africa, Israel, Japan and the former Soviet Block nations fall under this designation.

LEDCS: Bangladesh, Mali, Sudan, Peru, Fiji, Cambodia, Nigeria, Egypt, Zimbabwe
MEDCs are industrialised nations with large scale industry and a high gross-domestic-product rating. Citizens of these countries are usually economically well off with a small chance of starvation. They are also referred to as First World nations. They include all of the nations listed above with the exception of the Soviet Block nations which are known as Second World nations.

MEDCS: Australia, the UK, the USA, Switzerland, Canada, France, New Zealand, Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Japan , Republic of Korea