earthquake

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Strategies for managing earthquakes

  • Predict the occurrence of earthquakes-when, where and their possible magnitude

  • Watch for the surface changes such as bulges on the ground

  • Measure amount of argon and radon gas found in the soil above a fault. These gases seem to increase before imminent earthquakes

  • Pump water and lubricants into fault. This allows the rock to slip past each other, creating a number of smaller but less damaging earthquakes.

MINIMISING DAMAGE FROM EARTHQUAKES

Most deaths are caused by the collapse of buildings, these can be minimized if:

  • Present building are reinforced

  • New building are designed to withstand earthquake shock

  • Tall building are not building in high risk areas.

  • Single storey are built instead of multi-storey building.

  • Evacuation route and passage ways ( for rescuer and medical team) are considered in land use planning.

THE EFFECTS OF THE EARTHQUAKES AND THE MAGNITUDE

YEAR PLACE RICHTER SCALE DEATH TOLL DAMAGE
1994 NORTHRIDGECALIFORNIA 6.6-6.8 61 COLLAPSED BUILDING & HIGHWAYS
1995 KOBE JAPAN 7.2 5, 472 COLLAPSE HIGH RISE BUILDING AND BROKEN GAS PIPES CAUSING FIRES
1999 IZMIT, TURKEY 7.4 17, 100 COLLAPSE OF BUILDING & APARTMENT HOUSES
1999 NANTOU, TAIWAN 7.6 2,300 COLLAPSE OF BUILDINGS, SUBSIDENCE OF 50 CM ALONG WESTERN COAST, LANDSLIDE AND ROCKFALLS

Damaging effects/Disadvantages of an earthquakes

  • Loss of life

  • Loss of homes

  • Loss of property

Case Study

The city of Kobe , Japan (1995) , killed more than   5,000 people and injured thousands more. The strong ground vibration caused many buildings to collapse. Gas mains were broken and fires broke out which make the further damages.  The magnitude recorded was 7.2 on the Richter Scale

The Map of Kobe, JAPAN

THE COLLAPSE OF HIGHWAY

Earthquake region

  • The greatest concentration of earthquakes is found around the Pacific Ocean.

  • Another stretches from the Mediterranean sea to the Hilmalayas.

  • Both areas are the plates moving towards each other.

  • The volcanic belt coincide with the major earthquake zone.THE EARTHQUAKE REGIONS

THE PLATES AND THE RING OF FIRE REGION