POPULATION- THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE LIVING IN A COUNTRY
POPULATION DISTRIBUTION IS THE DISTRIBUTION OF PEOPLE IN A COUNTRY EVENLY OR SPARSELY.
POPULATION DENSITY IS THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE IN A UNIT AREA OF LAND.
POPULATION DISTRIBUTION IS THE DISTRIBUTION/SPREADING OUT OF PEOPLE IN A COUNTRY EVENLY OR SPARSELY.
EXAMPLES COUNTRIES LIKE CHINA, INDIA, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, & INDONESIA POPULATION. HOW IS THE DISTRIBUTION?
OTHER PARTS OF THE WORLD LIKE ANTARCTIC AND ARCTIC POLAR CAPS AND PART OF AUSTRALIAN DESERT. HOW IS THE DISTRIBUTION?
POPULATION DENSITY IS DEFINED AS THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE LIVING IN A UNIT OF LAND
THE FORMULA FOR POPULATION DENSITY IS
POP DENSITY= NUMBER OF PEOPLE /AREA = = PER KM²
FACTORS AFFECTING THE DISTRIBUTION AND DENSITY OF POPULATION
Population growth is the growing of population in a country
Population growth is refer in the terms of increasing (+) and decreasing (-) of population.
Natural Increase refers to the differences number of the Birth Rates and Death Rates is either (+) or (-) and if the Birth Rates exceeds the number of deaths.
Natural Increase = Birth rate – Death rate
Birth rates is the number of babies born per thousand in a year
Death rates is the number of people who died per thousand in a year.
FACTORS AFFECTING THE HIGH AND LOW BIRTH RATES
FACTORS AFFECTING THE HIGH AND LOW DEATH RATES
NET MIGRATION = IMMIGRATION – EMIGRATION
Net migration refers to the difference between immigration , which is the number of people , coming into a country , and emigration which is the number of people leaving the country.
POPULATION GROWTH = NATURAL INCREASE+ NET MIGRATION
DEPENDENCY RATIO = NUMBER OF DEPENDANTS
NUMBER OF WORKING POPULATION
Natural increase is influenced by the
1.Standard of living
MIGRATION is movement of people within an area.
There are two main types of migration
POPULATION POLICY: CASE STUDY- ONE CHILD POLICY( CHINA)
China’s one child policy was established by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping in 1979 to limit communist China’s population growth. Although designated a “temporary measure,” it continues a quarter-century after its establishment. The policy limits couples to one child.
However, the rule has been estimated to have reduced population growth in the country of 1.3 billion by as much as 300 million people over its first twenty years.
Now that millions of sibling-less people in China are now young adults in or nearing their child-bearing years, a special provision allows millions of couples to have two children legally. If a couple is composed of two people without siblings, then they may have two children of their own, thus preventing too dramatic of a population decrease.
The Policies introduced are
Heavily on the fines imposed for those who disobeyed the policy. The one-child program theoretically is voluntary, but the government imposes punishments and heavy fines on people who don’t follow the rules.
Parents with extra children can be fined, depending on the region, from $370 to $12,800 (many times the average annual income for many ordinary Chinese). If the fine is not paid sometimes the couples land is taken away, their house is destroyed, they lose their jobs or the child is not allowed to attend school.
Birth control education is highly emphasized to control the birth rate in China in term of public awareness and campaign.
Although IUDs, sterilization, and abortion (legal in China) are China’s most popular forms of birth control, over the past few years, China has provided more education and support for alternative birth control methods.
In 2007, there were reports that in the southwestern Guangxi Autonomous Region of China, officials were forcing pregnant women without permission to give birth to have abortions and levying steep fines on families violating the law.
Parents who have only one child get a “one-child glory certificate,” which entitles them to economic benefits such as an extra month’s salary every year until the child is 14. Among the other benefits for one child families are higher wages, interest-free loans, retirement funds, cheap fertilizer, better housing, better health care, and priority in school enrollment.
Women who delay marriage until after they are 25 receive benefits such as an extended maternity leave when they finally get pregnant. These privileges are taken away if the couple decides to have an extra child. Promises for new housing often are not kept because of housing shortages.
POPULATION POLICY: CASE STUDY THREE OR MORE (SINGAPORE)
3. Decline in the proportion of talented persons as the less educated marry and reproduce themselves at higher rates of fertility than the better educated (the “lopsided” pattern of procreation).
THE POLICIES ARE:
Employers attitudes to working mothers
Getting singles to mingle
CAMPAIGN AND ADVERTISEMENT
To promote the three or more policy well effective and must be practised to all Singapore. This is through campaign and adverstisement either poster, multimedia television and radio.
The new population policy attempts to redress these potentially disruptive trends by encouraging single persons to get married and by promoting a larger family size of three or more children among the married couples who can afford them. The latter effort is to compensate for those who do not marry and those who do not have any children, in order to attain the two-child average necessary for generational replacement.
It is expected that, by raising fertility to the replacement level, i.e. about 2.1 children per woman, and then maintaining this level of fertility indefinitely, the population will be maintained at a constant size with a balanced age structure, i.e. with neither too many of the elderly nor too many very young to be supported. This is through public education through bigger campaign and slogan for three or more policy
Abortion and sterilization counseling
Medisave can be used, with immediate effect, for the hospital costs of a third child, whether delivered in a government or private hospital. But no overdraft of Medisave account is allowed.
DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION MODEL
Demographic Transition Model is a graph showing the trend of changes in the natural increase of the population as a country develops. There are four or five stages which every countries have pass through. The graph below shows the transition or the change of Birth rate and death rates.
Refer to the above diagram
How the population changes?
In Rapid growth -Kenya
The population pyramid shows high birth rate indicates the wider base/bottom of population pyramid. The top of the population pyramid show there is a higher death rate because it is narrow. More people are dying. The reason for this , high birth rate and death rate is referred to lack of birth control and early marriage and death rate, poor medical facilities and Poor sanitation. In Demographic Transition Model this is the STAGE 1.
Slow Growth in USA
The population pyramid shows low birth rate at the base which is narrowed. This shows lower birth rates in USA. While the working population is much greater than the young age population. There is more working people here and this show that there is a need of creating new jobs and more industries to be opened to cater the population needs and to avoid high rate of unemployment. The top of the population pyramid is wider showing that the death rates are lower meaning there is more ageing population. The reasons for this are better medical facilities and better nutrition which makes the people to live longer and more healthy.
Negative Growth in Germany
This show the population pyramid base is narrowed showing there is less birth rate recorded. People tend to have less children due to the effective family planning. This is a worrying stage. As this continues, in few year they will suffer from highly ageing population where there will be more older people in the population compare to young people. The economic of the countries will be down as well as securities and investment.The top of the pyramid is more wider showing more elderly people. This is because of the better health care and nutrition intake.
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX
LEDCs and MEDCs
LEDCs are non-industrial nations. They tend not to have a base of manufacturing industries and residents are less economically advantaged (i.e. poor). Another term for LEDCs is Third World nations. The majority of the world outside of Europe, the United States, Canada, South Africa, Israel, Japan and the former Soviet Block nations fall under this designation.
LEDCS: Bangladesh, Mali, Sudan, Peru, Fiji, Cambodia, Nigeria, Egypt, Zimbabwe
MEDCs are industrialised nations with large scale industry and a high gross-domestic-product rating. Citizens of these countries are usually economically well off with a small chance of starvation. They are also referred to as First World nations. They include all of the nations listed above with the exception of the Soviet Block nations which are known as Second World nations.
MEDCS: Australia, the UK, the USA, Switzerland, Canada, France, New Zealand, Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Japan , Republic of Korea