Temperate climate and Vegetation

TEMPERATE CLIMATE

Temperate climates are those without extremes of temperature and precipitation (rain and snow).
The changes between summer and winter are generally invigorating without being frustratingly extreme.
There are two types of temperate climate: maritime and continental.
The maritime climate is strongly influenced by the oceans, which maintain fairly steady temperatures across the seasons. Since the prevailing winds are westerly in the temperate zones, the western edge of continents in these areas experience most commonly the maritime climate. Such regions include Western Europe, in particular the UK, and western North America at latitudes between 40 and 60° north.
Continental climate is increases inland, with warmer summers and colder winters as the effect of land on heat receipt and loss increases. This is particularly true in North America, where the north-south aligned Rocky Mountains act as a climate barrier to the mild maritime air blowing from the west. Maritime climate, on the other hand, penetrates further into Europe where the major mountain range – the Alps – is orientated east-west.
Sub types of temperate climate
There are two types of sub climate
1.Warm temperate
2.Cool temperate
1. Warm temperate
Average temperature of warmest month exceed 10◦ C and the coldest month between 18 ◦ C and above -3 ◦ C
Precipitation
Warm temperate- receive moderate about 300- 900 mm per year.
Convectional Rainfall in summer
Maritime influence in coastal area in winter. Coastal area receive more rain than inland area.
Warm temperate climate
Location between 25 and 40 North and South of the equator.
It is also known as Mediterranean climate
Countries in the Mediterranean are Spain and Portugal
Central and Eastern Asia as in Southern China and Southern Japan
North American; California South America in Central America Chile
South Africa Cape town and Southern Australia Perth and Adelaide.
Warm Temperate Climate
Cool Temperate Climate
. Cool temperate
Average temperature of warmest month below 10◦ C and the coldest month below -3 ◦ C
This is also known as humid continental climate located at higher latitudes than areas that experience the warm temperate climate.
The humid continental climate is sub divided into two types on their summer temperatures.
1.Long, hot summers temperatures can reach as high 25 ◦ C and winter between 0 to -10 ◦ C
2.Short, cool summer temperatures can drop to -30 ◦ C and stay below -18 ◦ C
Precipitation
Total annual precipitation is moderate and evenly distributed throughout the year.
Precipitation decreases with increasing distance from the sea.
Total annual rainfall is between 555mm to 760 mm.
In summer, convectional rain occurs
In winter, snow occurs
LOCATION
Location found in areas from latitude 40 ◦ to almost 70 ◦  North of the equator.
North America in northern USA and Canada
North west Europe in Russia, Norway and Finland
East coast of Asia in Northern Japan and China
Temperate Forest
Temperate Forest is divided into two types
1.Temperate Deciduous forest
2.Temperate Coniferous forest
Temperate Deciduous Tree
Distribution
Found in area between 25 and 40 N and S of the equator
Europe , China , Japan , Korea  and Eastern part of USA, New Zealand and Southern eastern part of Australia.

Temperate Forest

Temperate Deciduous Tree
Structure of the forest
Three layered structure
1.Tree layer – tall of 30 m , broadleaf trees provide a continuous and dense canopy in summer and shed their leaves in winter.
2.Shrub layer – shorter trees and shrubs of different heights  and grow rapidly in summer and warm spring.
3.Ground layer – ferns, mosses and other plants which grow quickly in spring but disappear in winter.
Types of tree
A deciduous hardwood trees shed their leaves in winter seasons

Summer season

Winter season

Examples such as Maple, Elm, Walnut and Oak
Temperate Deciduous tree has very few three or more species of plant in a hectare.
Characteristics
Broad leaves- enable to intercept maximum amount of sunlight for photosynthesis.
Thick bark- protect from cold winter
Deep roots- to anchor and support the tree.
Deep roots- to tap the underground water during the winter months when the top layer of the soil is frozen.
Temperate Coniferous Forest
Distribution
Found in the Northern hemisphere between 45 ◦  and 60 ◦ N
The Northern part of Europe, Asia and North America

Cool Temperate forest

Structure of the forest
No distinct layered
Straight trunked, cone shaped trees are of uniform height, generally about 20 m tall and they grow close together, shutting out most of the sunlight to the forest floor.
Types of tree
Evergreen softwood tree which do not shed their leaves at the same time.
Examples such as the Pine, Fir, Cedar and Spruce.
Softwoods usually light and soft.
Conical shape allow the snow to slide down the branches, preventing the snow from accumulating and breaking the branches.
Very few  one or two species grow in  a hectare

Coniferous Forest

Characteristics
Do not bear fruits, seed are protected and contained.
Leaves are small, narrow and often needle like to reduce transpiration
Adapted in harsh winter even the ground is frozen, little water is available still can survive.
Trunk have thick bark to protect themselves against the cold winter and wind.
Roots are shallow enable to absorb the nutrients and water on the top soil.
 

fruits and leaves

 


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